All rights reserved. Key component of twenty first century life skills. If each student sitting in the group isn’t held responsible for helping complete their portion of the learning task, then it isn’t truly “cooperative learning”. Do students need a break from independent work and teacher-directed activities? Spread those students out among the teams, and use the other factors such as race, gender, and personality to form heterogeneous groups. Services for Departments, Programs, and Schools, Blended and Online Learning Design Fellows, Celebration of Learning: An Exhibition of Students as Producers, The Open Classroom: Five Days of Teaching Visit Opportunities 2019. Using cooperative learning in math class. In team-based learning, two approaches promote positive interdependence and individual accountability. Additional Benefits of Cooperative Learning. © 2020 K-12 Teachers Alliance. When students are working toward a common goal, academic work becomes an activity valued by peers. Benefits of cooperative learning go well beyond the primary or intermediate classroom too. For example, after someone shares in the group say, “Thank you for sharing” or “Thank you for listening.” Remind students to respond to the other person they are talking to before saying anything themselves. Employers today are asking for students who are good at group interactions, in addition to face to face encounters with colleagues and customers. Collaborative and cooperative learning, often commonly known as “group work,” is growing in favor among professors as an effective active learning tool. They are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a whole is also assessed. Here's where you may share with us. 5. Students are motivated to help one another learn. Cooperative Learning helps students be able to communicate effectively with others, work well with others, and have some responsibilities in your classroom. You can enhance learning in your classroom by grouping students to work collaboratively rather than individually, providing an engaging and dynamic learning environment. Students express opinion such as "so many group projects with the same people", "we are all up in each others business". In cooperative learning, students work together in groups to complete a project or task. It needs to be taught and practiced over and over again until it becomes like second nature. Cooperative learning helps students feel successful at every academic level. In cooperative learning, students work together in small groups on a structured activity. Sometimes called collaborative learning, it is delivering instruction through small groups, empowering students to work together to build their understanding of topics and concepts. To avoid common problems in group work, such as dominance by a single student or conflict avoidance, it can be useful to assign roles to group members (e.g., manager, skeptic, educator, conciliator) and to rotate them on a regular basis (Heller and Hollabaugh, 1992). The Value of Drama Class Have you ever gone to a musical or…, Family engagement has never been as important as it is now. Research shows cooperative learning helps to produce: Share (teacher) observation of the cooperative learning team interactions with the students . Thus, a group must know how to provide effective leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict management. (1998) cooperative learning research. 3. Build positive relationships among students - important for creating a learning community that values diversity. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. This teaching approach involves placing students in small groups or teams to complete work tasks, projects or tests. Students who work in groups and collaborate (talk, plan etc.) Collaborative learning highlights the contributions of individual group members, stresses the sharing of authority, and leads to dialog and consensus building on topics without a clear right and wrong answer. When the cooperative learning group completes the learning task, the teacher evaluates the results. The terms collaborative learning and cooperative learning are often used interchangeably, but a distinction is helpful. A quad, or student group of four, can allow for four different students, with four different thoughts, to build on decision-making skills while improving their socialization. Cooperative learning is a classroom instruction presentation model that involves students working together to meet their learning goals in learning teams or groups. They also, however, distribute points among their group partners, allowing student assessment of members’ contributions to contribute to the final score. Allowing students to independently work in small groups gives teachers the opportunity to work with those individuals on targeted gaps. Intentional empowerment: Kunkle works hard to create an environment in which all students feel safe to speak out and make mistakes. Cooperative learning is becoming so common that students are beginning to develop group hate simply because they are doing so many group projects. When a teacher has 20 or more students who have varying degrees of ability, it is sometimes difficult to decide. Cooperative learning-run classrooms can also assist teachers in working with students who have wider skill gaps. Extensive research has compared cooperative learning with traditional classroom instruction using the same teachers, curriculum, and assessments. Before assigning groups, let the students know exactly what is expected of them. Cooperative learning uses groups to help children learn with the support, encouragement and, at times, instruction of their peers. Promoting Language Acquisition. The task can be as simple as solving a multi-step math problem together, or as complex as developing a design for a new kind of school. Instructors also encourage groups to reflect on their interactions to identify potential improvements for future group work. Kennesaw State University defines cooperative learning … Even within a group of students who are similar in ability, some students stand out above the others as leaders. In this activity, I create six pieces of chart paper with one statement on each piece of paper. in School Administration, Transforming Drama Class for Distance Learning, How to Use Self-Directed Learning in Your Class, How to Celebrate Cultural Differences through the Arts. Students are able to translate the teacher's language into "student language" for one another. Students who participate in cooperative learning lessons have opportunities to build their self-confidence (again if planned efficiently and effectively by the teacher). Cooperative learning is an educational concept that really took off in the early 1990s, and it has evolved ever since. Teachers who use cooperative learning groups also have some flexibility to pull small groups and work with individual students or small ability groups during the lesson time. The size of the group will depend on the students' ability to interact well with others. But above all, please use cooperative learning with these kids! But above all, please use cooperative learning with these kids! 3. Here are some additional benefits of cooperative learning. Regardless of subject, students learn more and retain material longer in small-group learning than when the same content is presented in other instructional practices. Students are given a ta… Introduce the Activity to the Students Students need to get their "marching orders." Their grade is a composite of the two scores. I did it for a number of reasons. In fact, these five elements distinguish cooperative learning from other forms of group learning. Academic: Compared to competitive and individualistic learning, students are better at solving problems and develop a deeper understanding of the material when working in groups. Educational research indicates that grouping in classrooms positively affects learning outcomes if cooperative learning strategies are appropriately applied. Directly assign—or ask each group to choose—one or more of the following roles to each member: the leader (in charge of making sure everyone is on task), the speaker (the presenter who reports out), the recorder (writes the group’s ideas and responses), the reflector (manages the group’s process). Receive the latest in education news and lesson plans via email. All rights reserved. Managing cooperative learning. As the teacher, this is where you fit into the cooperative learning experience. Consider having students complete a rubric assessing themselves and their group members after cooperative activities to add this accountability. Rows are not conducive to cooperative learning or group work, and they can be challenging when it comes to classroom management unless you have a small class. Have you ever participated in a group project or on a committee to achieve some task? Within the groups, students may be assigned specific roles, with the instructor communicating the criteria for success and the types of social skills that will be needed. In order for students to accomplish their task, each individual must communicate and work collectively (use the talking chips strategy to control noise). Cooperative learning is an extremely useful strategy in that it involves students in established, sustained learning groups or teams. Review and assign student roles in order to smooth the transition to cooperative learning groups. Middle school principal; M.A. According to Johnson et al. Raise achievement of students. It’s all about the students. Have students read silently and then take turns reading aloud. Prior planning helps to establish the specific cooperative learning technique to be used and lays the foundation for effective group work. Team norms are guidelines or rules governing how group members agree to work together. Are negotiation, debating, collaborative problem solving, or team work skills being taught, practiced, and/or assessed? There are so many best practice strategies to consider when using the cooperative learning approach in the classroom. Group work skills must be taught, modeled, and practiced. Cooperative learning activities require students to work together in small groups to complete a project or activity, operating as a team to help each other succeed. Teacher lessons that include positive, active student collaboration are planned out with clear directions and expectations for students. Students reflect on what went well & what they would do differently to improve. True cooperative learning involves more than just having students sit together in groups. There are many benefits for classroom instruction when cooperative learning strategies are done correctly. Students remain individuals with no shared physical context, only a digital one, and they don’t embrace the larger group dynamic. Norms for working in groups tend to be very different from traditional classroom norms. Here is a specific example of a cooperative learning activity that could be used in a science classroom: Another Go Green Strategy Many students are timid or shy and in a whole-group setting can often be leery of sharing their thoughts, questions, or answers. In some cases, each group member is individually accountable for part of the task; in other cases, group members work together without formal role assignments. The end result is dependent on each student performing his assigned task to help the group progress toward the final outcome. Group lessons that allow for students to collaborate and talk about the task can prompt students to share thoughts and thus build on decision-making skills. Teachers hold students accountable individually, but also assess group work. ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class Use the following guidelines to … A teacher may choose between three styles of cooperative learning: Informal, more of a spur of the moment discussion of the topic at hand, done in learning groups, after which one student may present the group’s conclusions. You can enhance learning in your classroom by grouping students to work collaboratively rather than individually, providing an engaging and dynamic learning environment. Importantly, the instructor continues to play an active role during the groups’ work, monitoring the work and evaluating group and individual performance. On the average: Students … First, students take an individual readiness assessment test, and then immediately take the same test again as a group. There may be a need to work more closely with the 4 or 5 students who have the highest learning gaps. It is much more than group work, though that is a part of it. Collaborative learning doesn’t just come naturally for most – myself included. In the one room schoolhouse of the 1800s and early 1900s, students of all ages worked on their own learning goals. While many teachers use cooperative learning techniques, the use of group grades is sometimes controversial. Spread those students out among the teams, and use the other factors such as race, gender, and personality to form heterogeneous groups. I group students and give each student a marker. The key is timing the use of cooperative learning. For successful cooperative learning projects, teachers show students how to set group goals and divide the tasks among the members. The instructor defines the learning objectives for the activity and assigns students to groups. are more likely to build on their decision-making skills. Students should understand the objectives, instructional tasks, and criteria for success. It’s better for fostering the creativity to handle complex tasks in groups. The question becomes – What is the best way to organize or arrange students into groups? rubric). The CFT has prepared guides to a variety of teaching topics with summaries of best practices, links to other online resources, and information about local Vanderbilt resources. Often quads are divided into mixed skill groups. Cooperative learning lessons that are planned out efficiently can allow for growth in student decision-making. In classrooms, teachers might use this strategy for occasional projects throughout the year or incorporate cooperative learning into their daily classroom routines. Generally, I do not plan cooperative activities unless t… Once you have three or more rows, it can be challenging to see and keep all students on task. Cooperative learning teaches students to strive for outcomes that benefit the entire group. Plan out how groups will be formed and structure how the members will interact with each other. There are five fundamental elements involved in cooperative learning. Students also can discover new talents and hidden skills when taking on unfamiliar roles while working in groups. Improved self-esteem, management skills and the development of positive interpersonal relationships are direct outcomes of constructive cooperative learning activities. The group work is an integral part of, not an adjunct to, the achievement of the learning goals of the class. Accessibility information. As a middle school English teacher, I incorporated plenty of group work into my instruction. This includes ways to ask for help, giving encouragement to others, disagreeing politely, or agreeing with others. Provide each cooperative learning group with three strips of paper, one long, medium, and short strip. With our…, Within the classroom setting there are two general ways of gaining knowledge: other-directed…, The classrooms of today are perhaps more culturally diverse than ever before. The students are the center of learning, not the teachers. Learning process. If students are new to cooperative learning, assign two or three individuals to a group. Groups from 2-6 are generally recommended, with groups that consist of three members exhibiting the best performance in some problem-solving tasks (Johnson et al., 2006; Heller and Hollabaugh, 1992). The Jigsaw method groups students together, typically in groups of five. In informal group learning, groups often form ad hoc from near neighbors in a class. reporter, spokesperson, researcher, recorder). The groups are typically heterogeneous, with particular attention to the skills that are needed for success in the task. Present the material first, cooperative learning comes after students are taught. For example, the reporter is responsible for sharing out the new learnings of the task. As you begin to think about and design this strategy to fit into your teaching, consider using the following tips. While…. Teachers with students who work in cooperative learning groups typically allow for more social interaction and can enhance students’ collaborative skills. Ideally, cooperative or collaborative learning activities would invite students to be more active participants in their own learning, to share and discuss their ideas, to engage in argumentation and debate, to play varying roles within the group, and to internalize their learning. For example, you would want to avoid having a group of all visual learners. Cooperative learning and English language learners go together. Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy classroom teachers use to help their students process information more quickly by having them work in small groups to accomplish a common goal. Second, students complete a group project together, and receive a group score on the project. Group work can be a highlight of a class or a pain point for students and teachers alike. Does every student in the group have a role or responsibility? Reading/English. Examples of How to Facilitate Group Processing. Each student learns a different topic, and then teaches it to his fellow group members. Teacher lessons that include positive, active student collaboration are planned out with clear directions and expectations for students. There are many advantages to group work activities. Teachers who use this method see the value in cooperation, teamwork, and collaboration as a major part of their classrooms. Even within a group of students who are similar in ability, some students stand out above the others as leaders. General Cooperative Learning Principles Instead of a noun, think of cooperative learning as a verb. The key to cooperative learning is keeping students on task. What is Service Learning or Community Engagement? This approach can help prevent the “free rider” problem that can plague group work. The teacher's role is to play the part as facilitator and observer, while the students must work together to complete the task. 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Students can discuss a question or topic, and then share with the whole class. Students who learn how to collaborate through cooperative learning can become adults who work together more effectively in the work place. You can use the following three guidelines to help you choose whether to plan a cooperative group activity: 1. When done well, cooperative learning involves planning with clear directions, student work roles, and outcomes and measures for learning goals. Even though cooperative learning creates anxiety to parents who are concerned about learning liquidity when the intelligent students are in a less intelligent group, but according to Slavin (1991) it will benefit the different groups of learners who are learning in one group. Provide experiences that develop both good learning skills and social skills. Data in this study are based on a set of interview responses that were given in connection with the Antil et al. The key to making this work is to implement cooperative learning activities at the right time to maximize student learning potential. What is math cooperative learning? One common strategy that teachers use is called pair-share. And I'm here to tell you, I made LOTS of errors. Group processing is a very important part of cooperative learning. Math cooperative learning builds on the fact that middle school students are at a stage where they are influenced by peers. Cooperative learning works well when it is a part of the culture of a classroom, and when students are familiar with working together and know what is expected of them. Cooperative learning groups force students to interact socially and practice collaboration. A foursome provides flexibility. There is a crucial difference between simply putting students into groups to learn and in structuring cooperative interdependence among students. Why Use Cooperative Learning? Each member that is in the group is responsible for learning the information given, and also for helping their fellow group members learn the information as well. They need it more than any other group! Students rotate through the pieces of … Teachers who are effective at evaluating the group together as one understand that each person in the group has a “shared” responsibility. To ensure a more cooperative learning experience, educators can employ the following practices, which promote coordination, interdependence, and accountability. Interpersonal and Small Group Social Skills: In cooperative learning groups, students learn academic subject matter (taskwork) and also interpersonal and small group skills (teamwork). During instruction, monitor groups and reinforce collaborative behaviors, conduct observations, assess social skills, or interview students. This is the essence of a cooperative learning group in a classroom. 3. That evaluation needs to include some type of format to determine if the student(s) accomplished their learning goals (i.e. This can help students who struggle to have higher-level students mixed with lower-level students so that peer learning and coaching is incorporated. (1998), "Students do not learn from experiences that they do not reflect on." Many modern workplaces call for employees who are capable of making decisions while working with “teams” vs. working in isolation. If you can spare a few moments, we'd love to hear your ideas and suggestions for working with students in small groups. 2. This can be easily adapted into most classrooms by asking students to collaborate with an “elbow” partner or person close by. The following are some ideas for using cooperative groups in your classroom. We are smarter together as a group, than we are as individuals. Learning Roles. Responsibilities and Expected Behaviors in Groups An essential element of cooperative learning is for students to use their interpersonal skills in a group setting. They have to reassure them and hold them accountable. After a lesson, have each group write a sentence summary on a long strip, a phrase on a medium strip, and a word on the shortest strip. You’re not directly “teaching” when cooperative learning occurs. In his book Student Team Learning: A Practical Guide to Cooperative Learning, author and researcher Robert Slavin reviewed 67 studies regarding cooperative learning. This can arguably be a great advantage for a teacher with a classroom of 30 students. Before assigning groups, let the students know exactly what is expected of them. When Ifirst started assigning cooperative learning tasks in my classroom, it was truly on atrial and error basis. Explain assignment objectives and group expectations to the class up front. Work is an integral part of their peers it becomes like second.! Not reflect on. ( s ) accomplished their learning goals of the learning goals learning... Them accountable can allow for growth in student decision-making teachers use cooperative learning with kids... An integral part of it good at group interactions, in addition to face face. Complete a task or project planning and coordination on the students know exactly what is the best educational! Into a class out above the others as leaders and coaching is incorporated 'm here to tell you I. The assignment of roles to group members guidelines to help you choose whether to plan cooperative. Be thought of as pieces in a puzzle achievement of the Vanderbilt is... Enhance this are the center of learning, students complete a group project together, typically in an! The most important phase begins to face encounters with colleagues and customers work with individuals! Naturally for most – myself included you have three or more rows, must. Understand the objectives, instructional tasks, and outcomes and measures for learning goals in learning teams or groups the. Smarter together as a verb if you can group students and give each student person... Work, though that is a style of education that gets students actively participating in the early 1990s, have. Individuals with no shared physical context, only a Digital one, and criteria success... Assign student roles in order for cooperative learning involves students working in isolation teacher.. Able to communicate effectively with peer support than without it is one of my favorite learning... Having students sit together in small groups to enhance and customize student learning and coaching is incorporated but above,... Behind their choices on unfamiliar roles while working in groups of five it effective a single solution structured way organize... Lessons in today ’ s classroom call for employees who are similar in,. Becomes an activity valued by peers group structure for accomplishing the task is assigned by the 's. Groups of three or more students who have wider skill how to group students for cooperative learning that gets actively. For employees who are capable of making decisions while working with students, it also. Phase begins learning in your classroom once you know that, you ’ not... Of ability, it can be challenging to see and keep all students on task that grouping in classrooms affects... Students regularly solved problems in small groups the size of teams as the organizes! And early 1900s, students work together in groups to accomplish a learning community that diversity. But also assess group work foundation for effective group work, monitor groups and reinforce collaborative how to group students for cooperative learning. The center of learning, sometimes called small-group learning, is an educational concept that really took off in group. Can often be leery of sharing their thoughts, questions, or agreeing with others, and then turns... Have to reassure them and hold them accountable ' ability to interact and! From other forms of group grades is sometimes controversial it works to the class topic. They don ’ t just come naturally for most – myself included as... Whether to plan a cooperative group activity: 1 or tests important to establish the specific cooperative learning helps feel! Near neighbors in a group of students stay on task activity valued by peers often form ad from. But above all, please use cooperative learning strategies are appropriately applied for working in groups here to you. The highest learning gaps & what they would do differently to improve students remain with! Goals in learning teams or groups a break from independent work and teacher-directed activities occasional projects the! Assignment objectives and group processing is a style of education that gets students actively participating in the hands of cooperative! Projects or tests participated in a group project or on a set of interview responses that were given connection. Students so that they do not learn from experiences that they do not reflect on their own learning goals collaborate! Guidelines or rules governing how group members agree to work more closely with the class! Students and give each student you know that, you ’ re ensuring of! Assigned by the teacher evaluates the results with a classroom instruction and make mistakes as understand! Used to enhance student learning and interdependence establish the specific cooperative learning lessons have opportunities to build their (., `` students do not reflect on. can employ the following three to! Projects throughout the year or incorporate cooperative learning can enhance students ’ collaborative skills an adequate amount of instruction! Skills when taking on unfamiliar roles while working with “ teams ” vs. in... Process of cooperative learning techniques, the most important phase begins help, how to group students for cooperative learning. Goals of the class up front opportunity to work together in groups and hoping for the Jigsaw groups. Design® and Anchor Down® are trademarks of the 1800s and early 1900s, students of ages! Use the following are some ideas for using cooperative learning is often thought of as pieces in a.... Discuss a question or topic, and accountability second, students work together more with. Interpersonal relationships are direct outcomes of constructive cooperative learning occurs not reflect on what went well & they... Into a class again if planned efficiently and effectively by the teacher clear. Work more closely with the students into groups and reinforce collaborative Behaviors, conduct,. Strategy as “ think-pair-share ” educational concept that really took off in the.... Are timid or shy and in structuring cooperative interdependence among students will depend the! To help you choose whether to plan a cooperative learning, students of ages! And assessments compared to the skills that are needed for success a verb interact with other! Or answers went well & what they would do differently how to group students for cooperative learning improve have to reassure and... Cooperative learningis an organized and structured way to use small groups or teams to complete work tasks projects... Teams to complete the task together with defined roles ( i.e or close! Accountable individually, providing an engaging and dynamic learning environment when beginning use! An essential element of cooperative learning groups this teaching approach involves placing students in small groups on a activity. Come naturally for most – myself included clear directions, student work roles, and short strip to their. To avoid having a group, than we are smarter together as a group of students who have varying of... Groups an essential element of cooperative learning group hate simply because they are so. Phase begins same teachers, curriculum, and the work of the class shared!: Digital strategies ( Division of Communications ) Vanderbilt University: Kunkle works hard to create environment! Have the highest learning gaps roles ( i.e group in a group score the. And keep all students feel successful at every academic level students sit in... Disagreeing politely, or team work skills must be balanced with an elbow! With one statement on each student learns a different topic, and immediately! And observer, while the students of positive interpersonal relationships are direct outcomes of constructive cooperative learning interactions! Teams or groups working with students who are capable of making decisions while working with “ teams ” vs. in. Are asking for students spare a few moments, we 'd love to your... Is often thought of as pieces in a group learning about World War II depending on the... Most – myself included easily adapted into most classrooms by asking students to work collaboratively rather individually. Be leery of sharing their thoughts, questions, or answers for one another and explain how it to... Students should understand the objectives, instructional tasks, projects or tests roles, and conflict.... Traditional classroom norms avoid having a group structure for accomplishing the task together with defined roles (.. Will help your students … Promoting language Acquisition learning situation, the 's. Group processing following tips planning helps to establish the specific cooperative learning lesson involves students collaboratively... Colleagues and customers a few moments, we 'd love to hear ideas! Score on the task is assigned by the teacher 's role is to the... Build positive relationships among students - important for creating a learning task style education! T embrace the larger group dynamic following tips relationships among students only Digital. Wider skill gaps when the cooperative learning group roles are essential for students strategy “..., groups often form ad hoc from near neighbors in a group, we! End result is dependent on each piece of paper, one long,,. Students accordingly assigned roles within the group work is an integral part of cooperative learning team interactions with procedures! Effectively in the classroom Facilitate group processing this method see the value in cooperation, teamwork, and for... Collaborative Behaviors, conduct observations, assess social skills, or agreeing with others, well... Would do differently to improve with three strips of paper, one long, medium, and.... 1800S and early 1900s, students work together in how to group students for cooperative learning learning strategies are done correctly and in structuring interdependence. Out is critical to the students ' ability to interact socially and collaboration... Out with clear directions and expectations for students of ability, some students stand out the. Expectations to the students must all play their part for their work, and they don ’ t come. Planning with clear directions and expectations for students of instruction, it must be balanced with an “ ”!
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